In Matthew 16:18 Jesus said to Peter: you are a rock, and on this rock foundation I will build my church, and not even death will ever be able to overcome it. Does Jesus give any guidelines as to how and when his followers or Christians should worship God?
"He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter answered and said, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." Jesus answered and said to him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven. And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it" (Matthew 16:15-18).
You misread Matthew 16:18. Jesus did not say Peter was the rock. He said that Peter's confession -- that Jesus was the Son of God -- was the rock. "For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ" (I Corinthians 3:11). God is always described as the foundation stone or the place where we find protection. "For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ" (I Corinthians 10:4). No man can ever be a rock like our God. Or another way to look at it: Peter's statement concerning Jesus was the truth and the church of Christ is founded on truth.
You also have the direction of attack backward. Gates are defensive, but you talk as if Hades is on the attack. Jesus is saying that his church will be attacking and Hades won't be able to keep the church from raiding its stores. The wages of sin is death (Romans 6:23). Thus, the realm of the dead -- Hades -- is filled with those lost in sin. Satan was in control of this realm until Jesus came along. "Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil" (Hebrews 2:14). Since that time, Jesus has been leading his church in raids against Satan, pulling souls out of the pits of spiritual death and bringing them to life -- and Satan can't stop it.
Worship is really a different topic, but, yes, Jesus has given us guidelines in how the church is to worship him. See "Worship" for information.