compiled by Raymond Warfel
The Last Vision
The Conflict Between Persia and Greece (Daniel 11:1-4)
- vs 1 - Who strengthened whom? Verse 1 is a continuation of chapter 10, so it is referring to the angel who brings Daniel the message.
- vs 2 - Three more kings are to come in Persia, then a fourth will be richer the others and stir up the kingdom against Greece, probably Cambyses; Smerdis; Darius Hystaspis or Darius the Great; then a fourth richer than the others, Xerxes (Ahasuerus) will stir up trouble with Greece.
- vs 3 - A mighty king will arise in Greece doing as he pleases. This king of Greece is Alexander.
- vs 4 - As soon as this king is great, his kingdom will be broken into four parts.
The Conflict Between Egypt (the South) and Syria (the North) - Daniel 11:5-20
- vs 5 - Ptolemy I (king of the south) and Seleucus I (king of the north) fight. Ptolemy wins. Judah is sort of kicked back and forth between these two kingdoms.
- vs 6 - A daughter of Ptolemy II is sent to the king of the north (Antiochus I) to help form an alliance but this fails and all concerned lose. Bernice, daughter of Ptolemy II, is sent to Antiochus I to marry his son in order to form an alliance but fails because Laodice (the first wife of Antiochus II) plots the death of the king, Bernice and her son -- she has them poisoned.
- vs 7-9 - Her family member will attack the king of the north and carry off much plunder. Then reigns in peace for some time. Then the king of the north will attack the king of the south and be defeated. Bernice's brother (Ptolemy III) attacks the north (Seleucus II, son of Laodice) and is successful in bringing back much plunder and many captives. He does not attack the king of the north but then Seleucus II attacks him and returns home with nothing.
- vs 10 - The king of the north's sons will make war with the south, but fail. Seleucus II has three sons (Seleucus III, Antiochus II, Seleucus IV) that war with Ptolemy III, they are beaten off and many are taken captive. Antiochus III will make war with the king of the south.
- vs 11 - The king of the south will war against the north and a great multitude are given to him. Ptolemy IV will fight with Antiochus III and many will be given to him.
- vs 12 - When the king of the south carries off many, his heart is lifted up, but it will be short-lived. Ptolemy IV and the army are proud, but it will not last.
- vs 13 - The king of the north will build a larger army, better supplied and defeat the south. Antiochus III will raise a larger army and defeat the king of the south (Ptolemy IV).
- vs 14 - Jews will ally with Syria against Egypt. Though many Jews ally with Antiochus III it will be their undoing because this will allow Antiochus IV to rule Palestine.
- vs 15 - King of Syria defeats Egypt. Antiochus III takes Sidon where Scopas (Ptolemy's general) took refuge after being defeated at Panium.
- vs 16 - Syria is undefeatable at this point and he takes Palestine. Now Judah is in the hands of the Seleucids (Antiochus III).
- vs 17 - Syria tries to make an alliance with Egypt by giving a daughter as wife to Ptolemy. Antiochus III makes an alliance with Ptolemy V by giving him his daughter (Cleopatra) as a wife, but this fails because she does not stay loyal to her father but to her husband.
- vs 18-19 - Syria turns its attention to the coast but is defeated by the Romans and dies at home. Antiochus III turns his attention to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Asia Minor, Thracia, Greece). A Roman general stops his attacks on their dominion. He is defeated at Thermopylae and Magnesium. The Romans place heavy taxes on Antiochus III so he loses all the property he held west and north of the Taurus Mountains. He turns his attention to his own territory while trying to raise money to pay the Roman taxes. He is killed (while robbing temples to raise money).
- vs 20 - Seleucus IV comes to power but is killed by his own prime minister. He is killed by Heliodorus after he returned from raising taxes for the Romans.
Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 11:21-35)
- vs 21 - The despicable person comes to power by flattery and intrigue. Antiochus Epiphanes, the little horn of Daniel 8:9-12, he was not in line to be king (Demetrius I is the son of Seleucus IV) but by flattery and intrigue he gains support and takes the throne.
- vs 22 - Antiochus plunders the Temple. Antiochus Epiphanes replaces Onias III the High Priest with Jason (2 Mac. 4:7) and plunders the Temple.
- vs 23 - He makes alliances with many but later for his own gain breaks them.
- 24-26 - The despicable person comes to power by flattery and intrigue. By subduing small groups at a time he gets stronger though the Syrian people are not great in number. He even conquers Egypt this way, something his father could not do. Antiochus Epiphanes is successful against the armies of Ptolemy VI in part by sedition and men deserting the army. Ptolemy's friends even help in his defeat.
- vs 27 - Both kings are intent on doing evil and speak lies to each other at the peace table. Ptolemy VI and Antiochus IV speak lies to each other at the peace table but God is in control and has set the time of their kingdoms ends.
- vs 28 - He returns home with much plunder, but his heart is set against the holy covenant. Antiochus IV returns to Syria with much booty and on the way stops at Jerusalem and tries to Hellenize Israel.
- vs 29 - At the time God appoints he returns to fight Egypt but fails. On God's time schedule Antiochus returns to fight with Egypt but fails.
- vs 30-31 - Ships of Kittim are in Egypt. They order him out, on the way home he desecrates the Temple. The Romans are in Egypt and order him to leave. On the way home, he is enraged, turns on God's people, stops the daily sacrifices and offerings, sacrificed pigs on the altar, and places an idol in the Temple. He also forbids circumcision, observing the Sabbath and no one can possess a copy of the Law.
- vs 32 - Some will be deceived, but others will be strong and faithful. Weak-willed Jews by smooth words will be deceived but faithful Jews with resist. This may refer to the Maccabees (Mattathias an elderly priest and his 5 sons)
- vs 33-35 - Severe persecution will come on the faithful but God has appointed a time when the Seleucids kingdom will end. Strong Jews will teach what is right but will suffer great persecution. Some help will be given (Maccabees) but will be hypocrites among them. Some will suffer but they will be refined (it will word for their good) for the end (when God brings the Seleucids to an end because it is appointed).
The Romans (Daniel 11:36-45)
- vs 36 - Is this a new king or the same one? What is the "indignation is finished" talking about? God's wrath against Jews comes to completion. We are still talking about the king of the north, but the Romans have replaced the Seleucids.
- vs 37-39 - Power and conquest were his gods and he would worship any god that helped him conquer. His god is not the God of heaven nor the gods of his fathers but his god is power and conquest, any god that would help him conquer he worshiped. Most often when he conquered a king if that king would readily submit and acknowledge him as ruler and pay taxes then he might be allowed to continue ruling. "Parcel out land for a price" may refer to these "client kings."
- vs 40-41 - The end time of the king of the south and Palestine comes under Roman rule. The time is chosen by God for the bring down of the Ptolemy kingdom. Cleopatra pushes Mark Antony into pushing against Rome and Rome under Octavian (Augustus) defeats them then takes the land of Palestine. Remember Herod was a friend and supporter of Mark Antony. He tells Octavian (in Rhodes) that if he had not been warring with the Arabs he would have supported Antony. He also is to have said, "Remember not whose friend I have been, but remember how loyal I have been to him." This is how he stayed in power.
- vs 42-43 - The Romans will conquer other countries and Egypt does not escape. Much booty along with captives from Libya and Ethiopia.
- vs 44 - The Parthians and Germans were always a trouble spot for Rome.
- vs 45 - Though Rome had authority over Palestine her end has been set by God.
- "Daniel" by Robert Harkrider
- "The Book of Daniel" by Jim McGuiggan