Who made the discoveries regarding oceanic springs and innumerable stars?


I found your information on Evidence very good pertaining to scientific evidence in proof of the Bible. I do have a few questions, although, on which I hope you can enlighten me.

Q1 "Ocean Springs" - Job 38:16 - Discovery 1930-1945.
Who made this discovery? Was it an expedition? Which expedition? When was it Is there a discover's name?

Q2  "Stars are Innumerable" - Genesis15:5 and Psalm 147:4 - Discovery 1940
Who made this discovery?

I have done extensive Internet searches on these topics and find similar statements as though those sites are just copying each other. If the statement is made, there must be a basis of this proof. Anything less will do damage to proving God's existence and the proof of the Bible as being an inspired document.

Thanks for your help. Just searching for the truth


I am quite happy to list my sources. However, before I do, let me point out that I am just a man and I am likely to make mistakes. Those writing on the Internet are also human and are also likely to make mistakes. Because I or someone else makes a mistake, it will not change the fact that the Bible is inspired, nor will those mistakes damage the proofs of God's existence or the inspiration of the Bible. The mistakes will just indicate that those making them are imperfect or perhaps poor sources.

In regards to the discovery of oceanic springs. Quoting from Has God Spoken? by A. O. Schnabel, 1974, 2004:

"A. D. 1930 Unknown sources were found to be providing fresh water welling up to the surface in the ocean. Some of these sources have been discovered, but using deep-sea diving equipment, to be large underground rivers flowing within the continental shelf. Their headwaters are at a high inland mountainous elevation, while their outlet is where the continental shelf drops abruptly to the ocean floor. A.D. 1945 It was not until oceanography research ships plied the seas after World War II, using the latest equipment including explosive charges for their depth recorders, that underwater volcanoes were discovered. There are estimated to be at least ten thousand volcanoes dotting the floor of the central Pacific Ocean alone. Many stand tall and narrow, extending thousands of feet high. Their underwater appearance would be as a forestland of chimneys protruding from the ocean floor to various heights. Research by Dr. William W. Rubey of the U.S. Geological Survey has shown that the present rate of water released from underwater volcanoes, fumaroles (secondary volcanic outlets), and hot springs is 430 million tons per year [William J. Cromie, Exploring the Secrets of the Sea, H. J. Prentince Hall, Inc., 1962, p. 15]. The earth's heat drives the entrapped water from underground molten rock and forces it out through one of these natural openings. Dr. Lawrence J. Kulp of Columbia University has shown that this release of new water is possible since the earth is estimated to have one-half of 1 percent of its weight in water entrapped within its rocks. Dr. Kulp's measurements resulted in the following conclusions: 1. Measured water in a rock averages .5 percent to 1 percent of its weight. 2. The earth weighs about six billion trillion tons. 3. Therefore, .5 percent of the earth's weight is thirty million trillion tons. If 6 percent of the earth's water escaped from the interior of the earth, it would be enough to fill all the seas, or two million trillion tons."

In regards to the inability to number the stars. Quoting from the same source:

"A.D. 1924, Gradually, through the invention of better instruments, the count grew to one hundred billion suns in our galaxy and an estimated trillions of galaxies, of which ours is average. To comprehend the possibility of counting stars, if a man were to count the suns in just our Milky Way galaxy at the rate of two hundred per minute, it would take him one thousand years. Stars exist in galaxies by the billions. A.D. 2000, Space satellite telescopes have now revealed that clusters are each comprised of billions of galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Innumerable clusters make up uncountable clusters of clusters, which then comprises superclusters. The grains of sand on all the earth's seashores are countless times less than the stars of the heavens. As scientists look farther into the universe, they see larger and larger structures. The largest structures that are being observed cannot be explained by any current theory ["How Is the Cosmos Structured?" Time, March 6, 1995, pp. 81-85]."

I hope these two quotes get your research pointed in the right direction.

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