Studies in Hymns
The Young Person's Guide to the Hymnbook
Early English Hymns
by Wayne S. Walker
One afternoon, Dad walked into the house quite a bit earlier than usual. After giving Mom a hello kiss, he said, "Hi," to the boys. Andrew asked why he was home so early.
Dad replied, "I finished what I was doing at the office, and since we were going to be gone tonight to see that new movie, I thought that I would work on some things around the house this afternoon."
Seth was working on English grammar. He spoke up. "I was just thinking. You've been telling us about hymns written in Greek, Latin, and German. But we speak English. I know that there must have been hymns written in the English language. When did that start and how did they come about?"
Dad answered, "You're right. Before there were hymns in the English language, there were hymns in Greek, Latin, German, and other languages, and many of these have come down to us through translations. However, the culture of the United States is derived primarily from English culture. Thus, a large number of the hymns with which we're familiar have come to us from an English background. From around 1550 to 1750, as I mentioned before, almost all singing done in English speaking churches was from the Psalms. However, even in the 1600s, there were some, especially among the Established or Anglican Church, who felt that to restrict the singing of praise to God in worship services to Psalms only was a bit restraining, so we start to see the beginnings of what was called 'hymns of human composure.'
"One of the earliest known hymn-writers in the English language was George Herbert, who lived from 1593 to 1632. He was the minister of the Anglican church at Bremerton near Salisbury and a friend of Izaak Walton who wrote the well-known treatise on angling or fishing. During his life, Herbert wrote many poems which were published in 1633 after his death. One, titled 'The Elixir,' was made into a hymn, 'Teach Me, My God and King.' Toward the end of the seventeenth century, Bishop Thomas Ken, whose half-sister married Izaak Walton, became a Dean at Winchester College and around 1674 wrote three hymns for his students to sing, one in the morning, the second in the evening, and the third at midnight, although some sources say that they were not published until 1694; Ken himself revised them in 1709. Each of them ended with the famous doxology."
Praise God from whom all blessings flow, Praise Him, all creatures here below;
Praise Him above, ye heavenly host; Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
"Two of these hymns are still used. The first is his 'Morning Hymn.'"
- Awake, My Soul, and with the sun Thy daily stage of duty run;
Shake off dull sloth, and joyful rise, To pay thy morning sacrifice.
- By influence of the Light divine Let thy own light to others shine.
Reflect all Heaven’s propitious ways In ardent love, and cheerful praise.
- Wake, and lift up thyself, my heart, And with the angels bear thy part,
Who all night long unwearied sing High praise to the eternal King.
- All praise to Thee, Who safe has kept And hast refreshed me while I slept
Grant, Lord, when I from death shall wake I may of endless light partake.
- Lord, I my vows to Thee renew; Disperse my sins as morning dew.
Guard my first springs of thought and will, And with Thyself my spirit fill.
- Direct, control, suggest, this day, All I design, or do, or say,
That all my powers, with all their might, In Thy sole glory may unite.
"The tune used in most books today was composed for this text in 1791 by Francois H. Barthelemon. The other is Ken's 'Evening Hymn.'"
- All Praise to Thee, My God, This Night For all the blessings of the light!
Keep me, O keep me, King of kings, Beneath Thine own almighty wings.
- Forgive me, Lord, for Thy dear Son, The ill that I this day have done,
That with the world, myself, and Thee, I, ere I sleep, at peace may be.
- Teach me to live, that I may dread The grave as little as my bed.
Teach me to die, that so I may Rise glorious at the judgment day.
- O may my soul on Thee repose, And with sweet sleep mine eyelids close,
Sleep that may me more vigorous make To serve my God when I awake.
- When in the night I sleepless lie, My soul with heavenly thoughts supply;
Let no ill dreams disturb my rest, No powers of darkness me molest.
- O when shall I, in endless day, For ever chase dark sleep away,
And hymns with the supernal choir Incessant sing, and never tire?
"The tune used with it goes back to Renaissance England and is a variation of a melody composed in 1557 by the great English musician Thomas Tallis.
"Almost from its very beginning, the English Church began to experience divisions. After many of the Protestant scholars returned from exile in Geneva during the Marian persecution, some of them began to lament the fact that the Anglican Church was turning back toward more Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. Because they dissented from the Established Church they were numbered among the 'Dissenters.' Some, wishing to purify the church of such error, became known as 'Puritans.' Others decided that it was a lost cause and so became 'Separatists,' many of whom were also called 'Baptists.' Most of the Puritans eventually decided that it was a lost cause too, and so disassociating themselves from the Anglicans became known as 'Independents' and were eventually called 'Congregationalists.' At about the same time as Ken, John Bunyan, a Baptist, was writing his famous allegory Pilgrim's Progress in 1684, one section of which beginning 'Who would true valor see' was updated by Percy Dearmer in 1906 as 'He Who Would Valiant Be.'
"However, hymns of human composure did not catch on until made popular by one man, Isaac Watts, who lived from 1674 to 1748. Watts was a Dissenter/Puritan/Independent/Congregationalist. At that time the Independents were still singing only the Psalms. One day, fifteen-year-old Isaac complained to his father over Sunday dinner about the lamentable singing. His father shouted, 'Give us something better, young man.' Already having written verses beginning at age 7, he turned his poetic tendencies loose in the religious field and wrote a hymn that was sung at the evening service. The congregation went wild. Of course, Watts catered to the desire of his people for Psalms and provided a compilation of the Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament. But he is also known as the 'Father of English Hymnody' because of such hymns taken from his 1707 book Hymns and Spiritual Songs as this well-known one."
- When I Survey The Wondrous Cross On which the Prince of glory died,
My richest gain I count but loss, And pour contempt on all my pride.
- Forbid it, Lord, that I should boast, Save in the death of Christ my God!
All the vain things that charm me most, I sacrifice them to His blood.
- See from His head, His hands, His feet, Sorrow and love flow mingled down!
Did e’er such love and sorrow meet, Or thorns compose so rich a crown?
- His dying crimson, like a robe, Spreads o’er His body on the tree;
Then I am dead to all the globe, And all the globe is dead to me.
- Were the whole realm of nature mine, That were a present far too small;
Love so amazing, so divine, Demands my soul, my life, my all
"In England, this hymn is sung to different tunes, but in America, most of us are familiar with the tune composed for it in 1824 by Lowell Mason which is said to be based on a Gregorian Chant.
"The next great hymn-writer in the English language comes from a different background, yet one also that dissented in another way from the formalism developing in the Anglican Church. Charles Wesley lived from 1707 to 1788. His father Samuel was an Anglican minister, and both he and his famous brother John were Anglican ministers, although their preaching was regarded with contempt by many of the leaders of the Anglican Church and their work eventually resulted in the establishment of the Methodist Church. While both were preachers, John was noted especially for his public proclamation and Charles is best remembered for his hymns, one of the best-known of which, dating from 1739, is still a favorite today."
- Jesus, Lover of My Soul, let me to Thy bosom fly;
While the nearer waters roll, while the tempest still is high.
Hide me, O my Savior, hide, till the storm of life is past;
Safe into the haven guide; O receive my soul at last.
- Other refuge have I none, hangs my helpless soul on Thee;
Leave, ah! leave me not alone, still support and comfort me.
All my trust on Thee is stayed, all my help from Thee I bring;
Cover my defenseless head with the shadow of Thy wing.
- Wilt Thou not regard my call? Wilt Thou not accept my prayer?
Lo! I sink, I faint, I fall—Lo! on Thee I cast my care;
Reach me out Thy gracious hand! While I of Thy strength receive,
Hoping against hope I stand, dying, and behold, I live.
- Thou, O Christ, art all I want, more than all in Thee I find;
Raise the fallen, cheer the faint, heal the sick, and lead the blind.
Just and holy is Thy Name, I am all unrighteousness;
False and full of sin I am; Thou art full of truth and grace.
- Plenteous grace with Thee is found, grace to cover all my sin;
Let the healing streams abound; make and keep me pure within.
Thou of life the fountain art, freely let me take of Thee;
Spring Thou up within my heart; rise to all eternity.
"Again, the English use other tunes, but here we usually use one composed
in 1834 by a New York singing teacher named Simeon Butler Marsh.
"About the same time as the Wesleys, John Cennick, who lived from 1718 to 1755, produced several hymns. In fact, he wrote over 500 during a four-year period. Cennick came from Quaker stock, was brought up in the Anglican Church, was converted to the preaching of the Wesleys, transferred his allegiance to the Calvinistic Methodists, and ended his days as a Moravian. One of his best-known hymns, dated 1742 is still used today."
- Children of the Heavenly King, As ye journey, sweetly sing;
Sing your Savior’s worthy praise, Glorious in His works and ways
- We are traveling home to God, In the way the fathers trod;
They are happy now, and we Soon their happiness shall see.
- Shout, ye little flock, and blest, You on Jesus’ throne shall rest:
There your seat is now prepared—There your kingdom and reward.
- Lift your eyes, ye sons of light, Zion’s city is in sight:
There our endless home shall be, There our Lord we soon shall see.
- Fear not, brethren; joyful stand On the borders of your land;
Jesus Christ, your Father’s Son, Bids you undismayed go on.
- Lord, obedient we would go, Gladly leaving all below;
Only Thou our Leader be; And we will still follow Thee.
"Most of our books use a tune that was composed in 1791 by a friend of Franz Haydn's named Ignace J. Pleyel.
"Not all hymns from the British Isles are English. William Williams, who lived from 1717 to 1781, was a Welshman who left medical school to preach. At first, he joined the Established Church in Wales, but after hearing Calvinistic Methodist preacher Howell Harris, he identified with him. Williams also wrote hymns for the Welsh people, the best known of which dates from 1745 but not translated into English until around 1771 or 1772."
- Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah Pilgrim through this barren land.
I am weak, but Thou art mighty; Hold me with Thy powerful hand.
Bread of Heaven, Feed me till I want no more; Bread of Heaven, Feed me till I want no more.
- Open now the crystal fountain, Whence the healing waters flow;
Let the fire and cloudy pillar Lead me all my journey through.
Strong Deliverer, Be Thou still my Strength and Shield; Strong
Deliverer, Be Thou still my Strength and Shield.
- Lord, I trust Thy mighty power, Wondrous are Thy works of old;
Thou deliver’st Thine from thralldom, Who for naught themselves had sold:
Thou didst conquer, Sin, and Satan and the grave; Thou didst conquer, Sin, and Satan and the grave.
- When I tread the verge of Jordan, Bid my anxious fears subside;
Bear me through the swelling current, Land me safe on Canaan’s side.
Songs of praises I will ever give to Thee; Songs of praises, I will ever give to Thee.
- Musing on my habitation, Musing on my heav’nly home,
Fills my soul with holy longings: Come, my Jesus, quickly come;
Vanity I see; I long to be with Thee! Vanity I see; I long to be with Thee!
"As with some of these other hymns, several tunes have been used, but the one in our books that we're most familiar with was composed in 1830 by the American musician and friend of Lowell Mason's, Thomas Hastings.
"Among the Independents/Congregationalists, Watts was a hard act to follow, but Philip Doddridge, who lived from 1702 to 1755, is especially noteworthy. During his life, he produced many hymns, a number of which were not published until 1755 after his death. Several of them are still found in many books today, including this one."
- Awake, My Soul, Stretch Every Nerve And press with vigor on;
A heavenly race demands thy zeal, And an immortal crown.
- A cloud of witnesses around Hold thee in full survey;
Forget the steps already trod, And onward urge thy way.
- ’Tis God’s all animating voice That calls thee from on high;
’Tis His own hand presents the prize To thine aspiring eye.
- That prize with peerless glories bright, Which shall new luster boast,
When victors' wreaths and monarchs' gems Shall blend in common dust.
- Blest Savior, introduced by Thee, Have I my race begun;
And crowned with victory at Thy feet, I'll lay my honors down.
- Then wake, my soul, stretch every nerve, And press with vigor on,
A heavenly race demands thy zeal, And an immortal crown.
"It is not in many of our newer books, but in older books, it was set to a tune that was originally composed in 1772 by George Frederick Handel for his opera Siroe.
"George Whitefield, who lived from 1714 to 1770, was a preacher who left the Anglican Church. He was influenced by the Wesleys and joined with them for a while, but he chose to hold on to the Calvinism that characterized most evangelicals of his day, and so split with the Wesleys. His followers were called 'Calvinistic Methodists.' Whitefield was not a hymn-writer, but in 1757 he published a leaflet that contained a hymn, sometimes attributed to Charles Wesley but may have been his own work."
- Come, Thou Almighty King Help us Thy Name to sing, help us to praise!
Father all glorious, o’er all victorious, Come and reign over us, Ancient of Days!
- Jesus, our Lord, arise, Scatter our enemies, and make them fall;
Let Thine almighty aid our sure defense be made, Souls on Thee be stayed; Lord, hear our call.
- Come, Thou incarnate Word, Gird on Thy mighty sword, our prayer attend!
Come, and Thy people bless, and give Thy Word success, Spirit of holiness, on us descend!
- Come, holy Comforter, Thy sacred witness bear in this glad hour.
Thou Who almighty art, now rule in every heart, And ne’er from us depart, Spirit of power!
- To Thee, great One in Three, Eternal praises be, hence, evermore.
Thy sovereign majesty may we in glory see, And to eternity love and adore!
"Almost all of our books use a tune that was written by Felice di Giardini for this hymn but is more often sung with Samuel Wolcott's 'Christ for the World We Sing.' However, it is believed that 'Come, Thou Almighty King' was originally written to fit the English national anthem, 'God Save the King (or Queen),' which in this country we use with Samuel F. Smith's patriotic song, 'America,' beginning, 'My country, 'tis of thee.'
"From the 1760s, two hymn-writers, neither Anglican, are remembered. Miss Anne Steele was a Baptist who had a childhood accident that left her a semi-invalid for life and whose fiancee drowned while bathing just a few hours before their marriage. In 1760 she published a book of several of her hymns, one of which illustrates her submission to the trials of life."
- Father, Whate'er Of Earthly Bliss Thy sovereign will denies,
Accepted at Thy throne of grace, Let this petition arise.
- Give me a calm and thankful heart, From every murmur free;
The blessing of Thy grace impart, And let me live to Thee.
- Let the sweet hope that Thou art mine My life and death attend,
Thy presence through my journey shine, And crown my journey’s end.
"Our books use a tune composed by Swiss musician Johann G. Nageli and brought to this country by Lowell Mason.
"About five years after Miss Steele published her book, Joseph Grigg, a Presbyterian minister, published several of his hymns, the best known of which is included in many books still today.
- Jesus, and shall it ever be A mortal man, ashamed of Thee?
Ashamed of Thee, whom angels praise, Whose glories shine through endless days?
- Ashamed of Jesus! sooner far Let evening blush to own a star.
He sheds the beams of light divine O’er this benighted soul of mine.
- Ashamed of Jesus! just as soon Let midnight blush to think of noon.
’Tis midnight with my soul, till He, Bright Morning Star, bid darkness flee.
- Ashamed of Jesus! that dear Friend On Whom my hopes of Heav’n depend!
No; when I blush, be this my shame, That I no more revere His Name.
- Ashamed of Jesus! yes, I may When I’ve no guilt to wash away;
No tear to wipe, no good to crave, No fears to quell, no soul to save.
- Ashamed of Jesus! shall yon field Blush when it thinks who bids it yield?
And when I come Thy face to see, O then be not ashamed of me!
"Several different tunes have been used with this hymn, even in our books, but the one I like the best was composed in 1972 by Tillit S. Teddlie, which uses part of another stanza to fashion a chorus."
Till then (nor is my boasting vain), Till then I boast a Saviour slain:
And, oh, may this my glory be, That Christ is not ashamed of me!
"From the 1770s, two more ministers wrote hymns which are still very much used today. John Fawcett was a Baptist preacher in the small village of Wainsgate, where his family was growing and his salary small. After about seven years there, he was invited to move to work with the prestigious Carter's Lane Baptist Church in London and decided to go. However, as he and his family prepared to leave, the weeping of the villagers who came to say goodbye so touched them that they changed their minds and decided to stay. It's believed that following this event in 1772, Fawcett wrote a hymn, though it was not published until 1782, to express his feelings for the congregation, and which we still sing often at the close of a service."
- Blest be the tie that binds Our hearts in Christian love;
The fellowship of kindred minds Is like to that above.
- Before our Father’s throne We pour our ardent prayers;
Our fears, our hopes, our aims are one Our comforts and our cares.
- We share each other’s woes, Our mutual burdens bear;
And often for each other flows The sympathizing tear.
- When we asunder part, It gives us inward pain;
But we shall still be joined in heart, And hope to meet again.
- This glorious hope revives Our courage by the way;
While each in expectation lives, And longs to see the day.
- From sorrow, toil and pain, And sin, we shall be free,
And perfect love and friendship reign Through all eternity.
"The tune almost universally identified with this hymn was another melody by Johann G. Nageli that Lowell Mason brought from Europe.
"Then in 1775, Augustus M. Toplady, a staunch Anglican minister who debated much with the Wesleys over doctrine, wrote and printed a single stanza which he turned into a hymn and published the following year, to portray man's utter helplessness and complete dependence on God, and over 200 years later, nearly every hymnbook published contains it.
- Rock of Ages, cleft for me, Let me hide myself in Thee;
Let the water and the blood, From Thy wounded side which flowed,
Be of sin the double cure; Save from wrath and make me pure.
- Not the labor of my hands Can fulfill Thy law’s demands;
Could my zeal no respite know, Could my tears forever flow,
All for sin could not atone; Thou must save, and Thou alone.
- Nothing in my hand I bring, Simply to the cross I cling;
Naked, come to Thee for dress; Helpless look to Thee for grace;
Foul, I to the fountain fly; Wash me, Savior, or I die.
- While I draw this fleeting breath, When mine eyes shall close in death,
When I rise to worlds unknown, And behold Thee on Thy throne,
Rock of Ages, cleft for me, Let me hide myself in Thee.
"As with many of these English hymns, Americans seemed to prefer their own tunes to some of the English melodies, and the one that we usually associate with 'Rock of Ages' was composed in 1830 by Thomas Hastings.
"Two other individuals from this time who have contributed much to the development of English hymns were John Newton and William Cowper. Newton was originally a seaman and slave-ship owner who eventually left the sea and became an Anglican minister at Olney, England. Cowper was the son of an Anglican minister and trained as a lawyer, but because of a nervous disposition never could practice law. His condition led him to try committing suicide several times, but he was eventually 'adopted' by Newton and came to live with Newton's family at Olney. Together, they produced one of the greatest Evangelical hymn collections of the late 1700s, the Olney Hymns published in 1779. One of Newton's best-known contributions, very likely one of the best-known hymns of all times, had an entire documentary was done on it.
- Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound That saved a wretch like me!
I once was lost, but now am found; Was blind, but now I see.
- ’Twas grace that taught my heart to fear, And grace my fears
How precious did that grace appear The hour I first believed!
- Through many dangers, toils and snares, I have already come;
’Tis grace hath brought me safe thus far, And grace will lead me home.
- The Lord has promised good to me, His Word my hope secures;
He will my Shield and Portion be, As long as life endures.
- Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail, And mortal life shall cease,
I shall possess, within the veil, A life of joy and peace.
- The earth shall soon dissolve like snow, The sun forbear to shine;
But God, Who called me here below, Will be forever mine.
"Most of our books have a final stanza which is not from Newton but is an anonymous verse dating from around 1790."
- When we’ve been there ten thousand years, Bright shining as the sun,
We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise Than when we’d first begun.
"The tune that is now almost universally used with this text is actually an American folk song from the South that dates back into the early 1800s.
"One of Cowper's best-known contributions seems to chronicle his belief in God's providential sparing of him in his suicide attempts and bringing him to Newton."
- God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform;
He plants His footsteps in the sea And rides upon the storm.
- Deep in unfathomable mines Of never failing skill
He treasures up His bright designs And works His sovereign will.
- Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take; The clouds ye so much dread
Are big with mercy and shall break In blessings on your head.
- Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, But trust Him for His grace;
Behind a frowning providence He hides a smiling face.
- His purposes will ripen fast, Unfolding every hour;
The bud may have a bitter taste, But sweet will be the flower.
- Blind unbelief is sure to err And scan His work in vain;
God is His own interpreter, And He will make it plain.
"This doesn't seem to be as popular as it once was, but our older books that have it use an old Psalm tune that goes back to The Scottish Psalter of 1615.
"Shortly after the Olney Hymns came out, another very well known hymn was written by Edward Perronett. Perronett's family were French Huguenots who came to England. His grandfather and father were Anglican ministers, and he became one too, at first. However, he joined with the Wesleys for a while, then left them to work with a small Independent or Congregational chapel in Canterbury. He is best remembered for a single hymn, the first stanza of which appeared in a magazine in 1779 with the entire hymn being published the next year."
- All Hail The Power of Jesus' Name; Let angels prostrate fall.
Bring forth the royal diadem, and crown Him Lord of all.
- Ye chosen seed of Israel’s race, ye ransomed from the fall,
Hail Him Who saves you by His grace, and crown Him Lord of all.
- Sinners, whose love can ne’er forget the wormwood and the gall,
Go throw yourselves at Jesus' feet, and crown Him Lord of all.
- Let every kindred, every tribe On this terrestrial ball
To Him all majesty ascribe, And crown Him Lord of all.
"John Rippon added another stanza in his 1787 Selection."
- O that, with yonder sacred throng, we at His feet may fall,
We'll join the everlasting song, and crown Him Lord of all,
"The English use a couple of different tunes with this hymn, but most American books use one by a colonial Massachusetts carpenter and musician named Oliver Holden, composed in 1793.
"In 1781, George Heath, who was from a dissenting family and became a Presbyterian minister but later joined the Unitarians, wrote a little hymn which is still found in some hymnbooks today.
- My Soul, Be On Thy Guard, Ten thousand foes arise;
The hosts of sin are pressing hard To draw thee from the skies.
- O watch, and fight, and pray; The battle ne’er give o’er;
Renew it boldly every day, And help divine implore.
- Never think the victory won, Nor lay thine armor down;
The work of faith will not be done, Till thou obtain the crown.
- Fight on, my soul, till death Shall bring thee to thy God;
He’ll take thee, at thy parting breath, To His divine abode.
"As with other hymns, most of our newer books don't have this hymn, but the older books that do use another tune by Lowell Mason that he composed in 1830.
"Probably one of the greatest influences on the development of English hymns toward the end of the eighteenth century, especially among those not associated with the Anglican Church, was John Rippon, minister of the Carter's Lane Baptist Church (he came there when Fawcett declined). In 1787, he published a hymnbook entitled Selection of Hymns from the Best Authors which became a standard among Baptists and many others. It was the first to include Perronett's 'All Hail the Power' as a hymn. Another well-known song taken from this collection is anonymous. The only signature on it was 'K' which has led many to believe that it was written by Robert Keene who was the song director at Carter's Lane Church. Sung in this country to a traditional American southern folk song, it is still very popular today.
- How Firm A Foundation, ye saints of the Lord, Is laid for your faith in His excellent Word!
What more can He say than to you He hath said, You, who unto Jesus for refuge have fled?
- Fear not, I am with thee, O be not dismayed, For I am thy God and will still give thee aid;
I’ll strengthen and help thee, and cause thee to stand Upheld by My righteous, omnipotent hand.
- When through the deep waters I call thee to go, The rivers of woe shall not thee overflow;
For I will be with thee, thy troubles to bless, And sanctify to thee thy deepest distress.
- When through fiery trials thy pathways shall lie, My grace, all sufficient, shall be thy supply;
The flame shall not hurt thee; I only design Thy dross to consume, and thy gold to refine.
- Even down to old age all My people shall prove My sovereign, eternal, unchangeable love;
And when hoary hairs shall their temples adorn, Like lambs they shall still in My bosom be borne.
- The soul that on Jesus has leaned for repose, I will not, I will not desert to its foes;
That soul, though all hell should endeavor to shake, I’ll never, no never, no never forsake.
"Nine years after Rippon's collection came out, another anonymous song was published in the Foundling Hospital Collection. It is often attributed to the editor, John Kempthorne, and is still used today.
- Praise the Lord, ye heavens adore Him; Praise Him, angels in the height.
Sun and moon, rejoice before Him; Praise Him, all ye stars of light!
- Praise the Lord, for He hath spoken; Worlds His mighty voice obeyed.
Laws which never shall be broken For their guidance He hath made.
- Praise the Lord, for He is glorious; Never shall His promise fail.
God hath made His saints victorious; Sin and death shall not prevail.
- Praise the God of our salvation; Hosts on high, His power proclaim.
Heaven and earth and all creation, Laud and magnify His Name.
"Our books use another Lowell Mason tune dated 1841, in which each stanza ends with the refrain, 'Hallelujah! Amen, Hallelujah! Amen, Amen, Amen.'
"Well, you need to finish your lessons and I need to get my work done, so we'll have to cut off our study of early English hymns at the end of the eighteenth century. The Psalms held sway up to about 1750, so many of these hymns come from a period of 50 years. However, from the first hymns of human composure in the 1600s to 1800, we've surveyed nearly 200 years of English hymns. Maybe sometime later we can continue with a look at English hymns of the early 1800s, which I arbitrarily call the Romantic Period, and those of the late 1800s, which I call the Victorian Period. Actually, the entire nineteenth century has been called both Romantic and Victorian, but there are so many hymns of this century that we still use today that I usually chose the date of 1850 to divide them."