Survey of the Bible - Matthew
Text: Matthew 16:13-20
I. Each of the four gospel accounts focus on different audiences and present the life of Jesus in a different style
1. Matthew, also known as Levi, a tax collector - Matthew 9:9; Mark 2:14
2. Events that might give praise to the author are recorded without mentioning the author’s name. It is from other gospels we find out who was involved.
a. Matthew 9:10 just mentions that Jesus dined “in the house” without directly saying whose house. But the use of “the” seems to indicate that it was important to the author.
b. It is from Luke 5:29 that we learn it was a great feast in Matthew’s house.
3. All early copies of Matthew are titled “The Gospel of Matthew.”
4. The early Christian writers all state that Matthew was the author.
1. "Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome. After their departure Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also transmitted to us in writing those things which Peter had preached; and Luke, the attendant of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. Afterwards John, the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on his bosom, published his Gospel, while staying at Ephesus in Asia." [Ireanaeus, Against Heresies, 3.1.1]
2. “Again, in the same books [the Hypotyposeis], Clement gives the tradition of the earliest presbyters, as to the order of the Gospels, in the following manner: "The Gospels containing the genealogies, he says, were written first. The Gospel according to Mark had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it. When Peter learned of this, he neither directly forbade nor encouraged it. But, last of all, John, perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel." This is the account of Clement.” [Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6.14.5-7]
3. The mention of “to this day” (Matthew 27:8) and “until this day” (Matthew 28:15), indicates that it was not written immediately after the events.
4. The lack of mention that Jesus’ prophecies concerning the destruction of Jerusalem were fulfilled indicate that it was written before 70 AD.
a. Knowing that the authors of the Gospels were selective of the events they recorded, Matthew makes mention of paying the Temple tax in Matthew 17:24ff. This would be meaningful to Jewish Christians before the destruction of Jerusalem, but insignificant afterward.
b. On that note, the Temple, and the worship there, is referred to frequently and while there are prophecies regarding its destruction, there is no indication that it changed by the time Matthew was written. Remember Matthew did mention what continued to happen to his day twice.
5. Some time in the 50's would be a reasonable estimate.
C. Original language
1. People have long cited Papias, an early Christian writer, to say that Matthew was originally written in Hebrew. However, that quote can be translated as in the Hebrew dialect or style of writing.
2. Some Aramaic and Hebrew phrases are translated into Greek (Matthew 27:33, 46). It would not be done if that was the original language.
3. Early Christians made many copies of the original documents, but somehow no Hebrew or Aramaic version of Matthew appear until much later and they are obviously translations from the Greek text.
4. Matthew was originally written in Greek, but it was in a heavily Jewish style.
A. Matthew’s account opens with a genealogy of Jesus, starting at Abraham, and emphasizing his relationship with David – facts important to the Jews in establishing Jesus as the Messiah
B. Matthew makes frequent references to the Old Testament prophets noting how Jesus’ life fulfilled them.
C. Matthew sometimes inserts a Hebrew or Aramaic word into his Greek text without bothering to translate - Matthew 5:22
D. Heavy emphasis is placed on Jesus being the Messiah and King long awaited by the Jews.
E. Frequent mention of the kingdom is made.
A. Matthew is laid out as events proving Jesus as king interwoven with Jesus’ teachings about the kingdom
B. It is not chronological, but topical, but presented loosely in chronological order
C. Each section ends with “When Jesus had finished these words ...”
A. Introduction to the King - Matthew 1-4
1. His lineage, showing he inherit’s David’s throne - Matthew 1:1-17
2. His birth, showing his recognition by God - Matthew 1:18-25
3. His childhood, showing his recognition by leaders of the world - Matthew 2
4. His anointing, showing his recognition by the prophet John - Matthew 3
5. His testing, showing his ability to defeat Satan - Matthew 4:1-11
6. His teachings and miracles - Matthew 4:12-25
B. The Laws of the Kingdom - Matthew 5-7
1. The Sermon on the Mount, though only about 15 minutes if read, packs a great deal about the changes about to take place in the laws
C. The Power of the King - Matthew 8-9
1. A diverse set of miracles are described over diseases, nature, demons, injuries, birth defects, and death
2. The healings are done in different ways, some by touch, some by word, some by not even being present
3. Interspersed are nuggets showing us Jesus great wisdom
D. What it means to be a citizen in the Kingdom - Matthew 10
1. How the kingdom will be spread by teaching
2. The persecution they will face
3. The dedication and devotion required
E. The Judgment of the King - Matthew 11-12
1. Jesus answers questions from John and the Pharisees
2. We see him rebuking those who would not change
F. The Nature of the Kingdom - Matthew 13:1-52
1. Parables that show Jesus as wiser and more subtle than Solomon
G. Resistance to the King - Matthew 13:53-17:26
1. His home town rejects him - Matthew 13:53-58
2. John is killed - Matthew 14:1-12
3. The Pharisees and Sadducees challenge him - Matthew 15:1-20; 16:1-12
4. But interspersed are great miracles show the king’s compassion
5. Confidence in who Jesus is - Matthew 16:13-20
6. God declaring His Son - Matthew 17:1-13
7. We also see Jesus preparing his disciples for his death - Matthew 16:21-28; 17:22-23
H. Relationships in the Kingdom - Matthew 18:1-35
1. The importance of everyone in the kingdom
I. Difficulties in Accepting the King - Matthew 19:1-22:45
1. There are hard teachings that are tough to handle
2. Requests that are turned down
3. Sinners thrown out of the temple
4. Stories illustrating his rejection
5. Yet also we see Jesus coming in triumph - Matthew 21:1-11
J. The End of the Old Kingdom and Readiness for the Final End - Matthew 23:1-25:46
1. Israel has become corrupt - Matthew 23
2. It will be destroyed - Matthew 24:1-35
3. Eventually all things come to an end, so citizens of the kingdom need to be prepared - Matthew 24:36-25:46
K. The Death, Burial and Resurrection – Proof of the King - Matthew 26:1-28:15
L. The Kingdom Established - Matthew 28:16-20
V. The Kingdom of Christ, his church, is here
A. It isn’t some future dream, but a present reality
B. Will you be a part of it?